Fig. 3.6 – Cettic (static) blender to mix the chemical multiplier with the emulsion. (Courtesy of Chemineer-Kenics, Dayton, Ohio.) Emulsion is generally present in beverages contained in this product in quantities of about 0.2 to 5% of the beverage product, preferably about 0.5% to about 3%, especially between 0.8% and about 2% of the drink`s product. Emulsion treatment devices that treat corrosive liquids must be regularly reviewed internally to determine if corrective action is required. Extreme cases of corrosion may require a reduction in the working pressure of the tank or repair or replacement of tanks and pipes. Ultrasound tests can measure the thickness of the wall of tanks and pipes to measure the existence and extent of corrosion. The reduction or control of corrosion of emulsion treatment systems is usually done by excluding oxygen, using corrosion inhibitors, using internal coatings and/or using a specific metallurgy. Excluding oxygen. The corrosion rates in most oil field applications can be kept at a low level if O2 is excluded from the system. When designing the process, be sure to install and maintain gas ceilings on all tanks and exclude rainwater from the system. Water recycled from swamping systems and storage tanks is a major source of O2 input into the process. Corrosion inhibitors.
Corrosion inhibitors are materials that, when brought in small quantities in a potentially corrosive environment compared to a metal or alloy, effectively reduce the rate of corrosion by reducing the tendency of the metal or alloy to react with the solution. As liquid solutions or compounds, inhibitors can be injected into the flow current into the flow, distribution or production system. The potential of corrosion inhibitors to act as emulsifiers must be identified during use. Cathode protection. Victim anodes are often used for cathode protection. They are made of a metal whose relative position in the galvanic range protects the victims of the steel container. Most galvanic anodes used in emulsion treatments are 3 to 6 inches in diameter and 3 to 4 feet long and are generally used for 10 to 20 years. Several anodes are usually installed in each ship. They are considered consumable and are always installed on a fast bridle or fitting in the tank, so they can be easily replaced for consumption. Galvanic anodes should be installed in such a way as to be immersed in the water that serves as an electrolyte.
They do not protect the keeper if they are immersed in oil.