It is never easy to put an international trade agreement over the line. Negotiations on the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement lasted seven years, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was originally developed in 1980, but was not ratified until 1993. Similarly, the signing of the agreement is only the beginning: trade agreements are subject to amendments and differences of opinion, as the recent GERangel in NAFTA showed. This special agreement was replaced at the beginning of July. Regional economic integration has not been as successful in Asia as in the EU or NAFTA, with most Asian countries relying on US and European markets for export.  Founded in 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) consisted of Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), officially established in 1993, was expected to reduce tariffs on inter-regional trade to a maximum of 5% by 2008.  ASEAN is the third largest free trade agreement in the world after the EU and NAFTA and through MERCOSUR. Established in 1989, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is expected to foster multilateral economic cooperation on trade and investment in the Pacific.  APEC consists of 21 countries bordering the Pacific; Progress towards free trade is hampered by the size and geographical distance between Member States and the absence of a treaty. There are several regional trade groups in Africa that are registered with the WTO, including: Agree to disagree The issue of the impact of the new agreement on the economies concerned is difficult to resolve at this stage.
Tariff reductions are significant and are completely eliminated for poultry, cheese, pork and many other agri-food products. Given the ongoing discussions between the United States and the European Union, the US-EU Trade Agreement (TTIP) seems poised to improve. Canada and the EU are preparing to join the Canada-EU Free Trade Agreement (CETA), which appears to contain the same elements of NAFTA. While many in the United States are concerned that trade agreements with Mexico and others will be renegotiated and tariffs will be increased to 35%, there is some degree of coherence under nafta and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). This raises the question of whether TTIP has 0% tariffs and whether NAFTA is set at 35% tariffs, will there be a revision of this imbalance? „The new type of commitment signed by the EU and Mexico guarantees the stability and credibility on which investors and exporters can reliably build their long-term investment and distribution channel decisions,“ said De Biévre. „There is a policy and legal certainty – a property that is now a great shortage in the United States. For Mexico, a stable and deep trade relationship with one of the three main players in international trade policy, the EU, is an important insurance policy. Mexico is currently the EU`s largest trading partner in Latin America, while only the United States and Canada trade more goods with Mexico than the 27-person bloc. Despite the distance and cultural differences between the two sides, there are already economic links between the EU and Mexico: trade in goods alone increased by 148% between 2000 and 2018, when the initial trade agreement between the two countries came into force. Integration is a political and economic agreement between countries that favours Member States.
 General integration can be achieved in three different ways: the World Trade Organization (WTO), bilateral integration and regional integration.  In the context of bilateral integration, only two countries cooperate economically, while regional integration brings together several countries at the same geographical distance from organizations such as the European Union (EU) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).