In the case of military operations abroad within the framework of a United Nations mission, the status of Bundeswehr personnel is governed by arrangements between the United Nations and the receiving State. A recent example is the agreement reached on 8 August 2011 between the United Nations and the Government of South Sudan on the United Nations Mission in South Sudan. An agreement on visiting forces is similar to an agreement on the status of troops, except that the former only temporarily cover troops that are not stationed there. A Forces Agreement (SOFA) is an agreement between a host country and a foreign nation that deploys armed forces in that country. SOFAs are often part of a comprehensive security agreement with other types of military agreements. For civil cases, SOFAs provide for how civilian damages caused by the armed forces are identified and paid. Criminal issues vary, but the typical provision in U.S. SOFA is that U.S. courts have jurisdiction over crimes committed either by a soldier against another soldier or by a soldier as part of his or her military duty, but the host country retains jurisdiction over other crimes.  For each operation abroad, the status of federal military personnel is governed by a bilateral or multilateral agreement with the host country concerned.
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