What Was The Importance Munich Agreement

The British people expected an imminent war and Chamberlain`s „state gesture“ was initially applauded. He was greeted as a hero by the royal family and invited to the balcony of Buckingham Palace before submitting the agreement to the British Parliament. The general positive reaction quickly re-established despite the royal patronage. However, there was resistance from the beginning. Clement Attlee and labor rejected the deal in alliance with the two Conservative MPs Duff Cooper and Vyvyan Adams, who until then had been seen as a hard and reactionary element in the Conservative party. Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister, met Hitler during his retirement in Berchtesgaden on 15 and 16 September; he reached a provisional agreement with Hitler, who agreed not to take military measures without further discussion, while Chamberlain promised to convince his cabinet and the French to accept the results of a referendum in the Sudetenland. French Prime Minister Edouard Daladier and his Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet met with British diplomats in London and made a joint statement that all regions with more than 50% Of Sudeten germans should be transferred to Germany. The Czechoslovakian government, which was not consulted, initially rejected the proposal, but was reluctantly forced to accept it on 21 September. But this was not enough for Hitler; When Chamberlain met Hitler in Godesberg on 22 September, he learned that Hitler would now evacuate the Sudetenland occupied by the German army and the Czechoslovakians from the region by 28 September. Chamberlain agreed to submit the new proposal to the Czechoslovaks, who rejected it, as did the British cabinet and the French. On 24 September, the French ordered a partial mobilization: the day before, the Czechoslovaks had ordered a general mobilization.

It was the first French mobilization since the First World War. In a last attempt to avoid war, Chamberlain proposed to immediately convene a four-power conference to settle the dispute. Despite his desire for war, Hitler agreed, and on 29 September, Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier and Mussolini met in Munich. Since most of the border areas are in the area ceded under the Munich Agreement, the rest of Czechoslovakia, despite its relatively large reserves of modern armaments, was totally open to further invasions. In a speech to the Reichstag, Hitler spoke of the importance of the occupation for the strengthening of the German army and said: That Germany, occupying Czechoslovakia, won 2,175 rifles and cannons, 469 tanks, 500 pieces of anti-aircraft artillery, 43,000 machine guns, 1,090,000 military rifles, 114,000 pistols, about one billion small arms and three million rounds of ammunition. This could arm about half of the Wehrmacht. [93] Czechoslovakian weapons later played an important role in the German conquest of Poland and France, the latter of which had pushed Czechoslovakia to capitulate to the Sudetenland in 1938. During the Second World War, British Prime Minister Churchill, who opposed the agreement when it was signed, decided not to abide by the terms of the post-war agreement and to bring the Sudetenland back to post-war Czechoslovakia. On 5 August 1942, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Anthony Eden, sent Jan Masaryk the following note: The economic consequences of the Munich agreement will be very severe for Czechoslovakia. The loss of industries, railwayheads, knots, etc., cannot help but cause a sharp loss of trade and unemployment. There is no doubt that Czechoslovakia becomes the object of quasi-colonial exploitation for Germany.

Under the Munich Agreement, the entire territory, mainly German, was to be returned to Czechoslovakia by 10 October. Poland and Hungary occupied other parts of the country and, after a few months, Czechoslovakia ceased to exist and what was left of Slovakia became a German puppet state.